ferrovias modelo, como a coisa real, tendem a ser bastante plana. Se você quiser ot têm layouts mais complexos com gradientes que você precisa planejar cuidadosamente com antecedência, e evitar a tentação de criar um irrealista (e undriveable!) inclinar.
Many modellers wish to build models that look realistic, so let’s start with what sort of gradients are found on the real railways. The Worsbrough incline on the former woodhead mainline from Manchester to Sheffield was a 1 em 37 inclinar, and regularly used 4 motores. Parts of Mersey rail are claimed to be as steep as 1 in 27 as is the Middleton Junction to Oldham Werneth line. More sustained gradients include examples such as around Portsmouth where the line from Goldalming to Haslemere has a gradients of around 1 em 80. The Lickey incline near Birmingham is a 1 em 38 incline para 2 milhas.
Put another way, short inclines on the real railways have been as severe as 1 em 27 (3.7%), but these required special banking locos or multiple locos. The steepest sustained inclines that are operated without special locos don’t exceed 1 em 80 (1.25%)
Para atravessar trilhas com 00 bitola exige uma altura de 60 milímetros da parte superior da trilha, to bottom of baseboard above. With a baseboard+track thickness of 10mm this means to cross one track over another will require a relative height difference of at least 70mm. Achieving this in the shortest distance can be achieved by 1 track sinking 35mm and the other rising by 35mm.
With a realistic incline of 1.25% este requer um comprimento de 2,8 m!
Unless you have a lot of space it will be hard to build a layout with a cross over that sticks to realistic real world inclines. So the next question is — what is the steepest incline that can be operated successfully with typical 00 locos calibre, and is there anything that can be done to improve this.
Os usuários na hornby forum suggest that around 1 em 75 seems to be the limit for a 6‑coach train. Another recommendation está ao redor 1 em 60. Isto pode ser empurrado para 1 em 50 with shorter trains, mas com o comprimento completo (8−10 carriage) trains pulled by steam locos anything steeper than 1 em 50 é pouco provável que funcione. Using the same formula as above the length required it still 1.75m. Another good summary is ModelRailwayEngineer.
podemos melhorar esta
One way modellers have improved loco grip in the past has been to increase loco weight. This has the obvious downside of increasing the weight that the motor has to pull up any incline, and there is often limited space inside locos to fit weights. I recently wondered if it would be possible to improve the grip of locos by placing a magnetic material under the track and using super-strong modern magnets (cheaply available from ebay) em locos para melhorar a aderência. Well — it turns out it is — and there is already specially designed kit called Powerbase being sold for exactly this purpose. DCC concepts guarantee that Powerbase will double the pulling power of locos up 1 em 30 gradients, but what will your locos pull up those gradients to start with, e quanto vai PowerBase ajuda com um 1 em 50 inclinar?
um teste of powerbase found a 2−6−0 loco on a 1 em 35 gradient improved from pulling 8 wagons to pulling 29 wagons and could have done more.
Another example of the improvements available was recently in the Hornby magasine. Com um 1.5% inclinar (1 em 66) quase todos os loco tested duplicou o que poderia puxar, with smaller 0−6−0 and 4−4−0 locos able to pull 6 ou 7 carriages, and larger 2−6−0 and 4−6−0 locos able to pull 12+ carriages.
Usando Powerbase parece que se inclina de 1 em 30 are possible with good length trains, taking the length required for such an incline to only 1m.
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