0美国地图欧洲旅行

我已经写了约两倍左右刨欧洲驾车出行, 但因为这些文章中,我也做了非驱动欧洲旅游度假, 和我目前正在规划另一趟. 这篇文章的目的是作为一个全面的起点,计划在欧洲任何行.

开车旅行

文件, 证件, 设备 & 法规

There are a range of travel doc­u­ments that you should take with you if you are driv­ing in Europe.  当然,你必须把你的驾驶执照的情况下,你必须证明你有资格来驱动汽车.  You may also be asked for proof of own­er­ship of the vehicle so take your V05 doc­u­ment.  An insur­ance cer­ti­fic­ate is also often reques­ted at the bor­der of some coun­tries so it is advis­able to take a copy of this, includ­ing a “green card” if you can obtain one from your insurer.  最后, an “inter­na­tion­al driv­ing per­mit” is advis­able and only costs £5 from the post office.  机管局 has more inform­a­tion about IDP’s.  Anoth­er form­al doc­u­ment I always take is a European acci­dent report form — these can be used in the event of an acci­dent with anoth­er party where neither of you speak the lan­guage of the oth­er.  Hope­fully this isn’t some­thing you’ll ever need to use, but the peace of mind is valu­able.  这些形式可以是 down­loaded for free.  The last paper thing I advise tak­ing is an up-to-date European road atlas, just in case you get lost and your tech­no­logy fails.

A range of safety equip­ment is also required when driv­ing in many European coun­tries.  Since most of it is fairly small and none is too expens­ive it isn’t a bad idea to get a full set and keep it in your car even in the UK.  These include 2 酒精探测器, 一个 三角警示牌, 一个 急救包, 一个 reflect­ive vest, head­light con­vert­ers, 一个 GB stick­er, 一个 灭火器, 一组备用灯泡, 和一组备用保险丝.  我也想借此小火把.  It goes without say­ing that you should take a spare wheel and the tools to change a wheel in the event of a flat tyre.  Some coun­tries actu­ally require that you carry a “full size” spare, but in all hon­esty we have ignored this and taken whatever spare came with the car.

The last offi­cial inform­a­tion you should make your­self aware of are the driv­ing reg­u­la­tions for each coun­try you plan to pass through.  These include speed lim­its, the mean­ings of signs, and oth­er spe­cif­ics, for example the use of head­lights is required even in day­light in some coun­tries, whilst speed cam­era data­bases are banned in oth­ers.  The AA has a good list of all the vari­ous reg­u­la­tions for each coun­try.

税和通行费

If you are used to driv­ing in the UK you prob­ably aren’t used to pay­ing tolls to drive on the roads.  Many European coun­tries do how­ever have sig­ni­fic­ant road tolls, includ­ing our nearest neigh­bour France.  Oth­ers, for example Ger­many, 有免费的道路如英国.  Hav­ing an idea of these costs is import­ant so that you can take into the account the cost of vari­ous routes, and so that you have the appro­pri­ate cur­rency avail­able.  Some coun­tries also require you to pur­chase road tax with either an elec­tron­ic num­ber-plate recog­ni­tion sys­tem, or with vis­ibly dis­played tax discs inside the car.  The route-plan­ning web­site ViaMichelin provides pretty accur­ate inform­a­tion about the costs of any route.  For spe­cif­ic inform­a­tion about the taxes and tolls in each coun­try I recom­mend Tolls.eu.  许多税收光盘可支付提前, the most com­pre­hens­ive site I have found is TollTickets.com, although it isn’t always quite as cheap as offi­cial out­lets.

汽油

Fuel has dif­fer­ent names in Europe — it is worth mak­ing a note of these in advance to ensure you don’t end up put­ting the wrong fuel in your car.  “Dies­el” is a fairly wide­spread term for Dies­el fuel, but it is also some­times called “gazole”.  Pet­rol is usu­ally iden­ti­fi­able by the 95 要么 98 名称后, 同 95 being reg­u­lar unleaded and 98 being premi­um unleaded.  Pet­rol is also often called “super” or “euro” or a com­bin­a­tion of the 2.

Typ­ic­al fuel prices can be found on fuel-prices-europe.info.  The prices there are kept up-to-date and tend to be reas­on­ably accur­ate. As in the UK the cheapest fore­courts are often at super­mar­kets, whilst motor­way ser­vice sta­tions often have a premi­um price.  Prices do vary by coun­try so it is worth think­ing about where you will fill up.

It is some­times pos­sible to buy fuel from gar­ages in “no mans land” between bor­ders.  The prices at such sta­tions are often very cheap, but I have nev­er taken the chance as these gar­ages are effect­ively oper­at­ing out­side any clear leg­al jur­is­dic­tion.

吃路线

On some jour­neys you might want to eat on route near the road without divert­ing espe­cially for food.  There are of course ser­vice sta­tions along most major European routes just like there are along UK motor­ways.  Heston Blu­menth­al wrote an art­icle for the Guard­i­an news­pa­per a few years ago identi­fy­ing a few of the best.  Oth­er than these I under­stand the Itali­an AutoGrill chain are regarded as bet­ter than most, and the Ger­manNord­see chain appar­ently do good qual­ity fish and sea­food which is cer­tainly a step up from the stand­ard UK offer­ings of fried chick­en, bur­gers and chips.

If you aren’t trav­el­ling a major route with ser­vice sta­tions, 或者不想停止在所有, 你可能要采取一系列汽车小吃.  This is gen­er­ally a good idea any­way, espe­cially if tak­ing chil­dren.  There are lots of web­sites out there offer­ing car friendly recipes, but a lot of them are clearly designed with cool boxes and stop­ping at pic­nic spots in mind, where­as “car snacks” to me means food you eat inside the car whilst mov­ing.  The key dif­fer­ence is that messy foods aren’t suit­able for eat­ing in a car that you might be spend­ing many hours in.  There are still foods which make sat­is­fy­ing snacks, 做小乱, 并会持续超过 1 day without refri­ger­a­tion.  A list of snacks I recom­mend is below

  • 无核百吉饼
  • Bana­nas
  • 苹果
  • 葡萄
  • Cher­ries
  • 瓶水
  • 糖果 / 薄荷糖
  • Sug­ar snap peas
  • Flour tor­til­las
  • 坚果
  • 干果 (e.g. 杏子, cran­ber­ries, rais­ins, 香蕉)
  • 牛肉 / 猪肉干
  • Cer­eal bars (not chocol­ate)
  • Cherry toma­toes
  • 薯片
  • 小饼干 (e.g. 里兹饼干)
  • 奶酪串 / baby­bels
  • Dry cer­eals

乘坐公共交通工具旅行

查找列车

You can vis­it almost any­where in Europe by train, and usu­ally at good speed and in good com­fort.  If there are sev­er­al people the train does seem to work out a little more expens­ive than driv­ing (自己的车), but you can do oth­er things whilst on the train, and it gets you dir­ectly from city centre to city centre much faster than the car.  This has the obvi­ous advant­ages that the major­ity of inter­est­ing sights, 酒店, and res­taur­ants are in city centres.

stand­ard fares are often over­prices, just as they usu­ally are in the UK.  Much bet­ter value fares are avail­able if you know where to look.  The site for plan­ning rail travel in Europe is undoubtedly ‘在座椅六一曼’ which has everything you could pos­sibly want to know about how to get between major European cit­ies in the fast­est, most scen­ic and best value ways.  The Ger­man rail site bahn.com is an excel­lent back-up for find­ing jour­ney times, 路线, and some­times prices, for just about any route you can ima­gine.

预订渡轮

Fer­ries are prob­ably the trick­i­est thing to suc­cess­fully book in Europe.  许多路线没有天天跑, most have very dif­fer­ent sched­ules in dif­fer­ent sea­sons, and a lot don’t pub­lish their timetables more than a few months in advance on the Eng­lish lan­guage parts of their sites.  In gen­er­al it is best to book dir­ectly via the oper­at­or if pos­sible as I have exper­i­enced instances of travel agents selling tick­ets for a route that the oper­at­or stops sail­ing.  This last sum­mer we arrived at Pir­aeus to col­lect our tick­ets on the day of travel, only to be told the tick­ets had been can­celled and that I had been refun­ded.  Of course when I double checked I hadn’t been either noti­fied or refun­ded.  We were lucky that we found an altern­at­ive ferry com­pany on the day that had spaces avail­able.  To find the oper­at­ors of the routes you need it is usu­ally easi­est to start with a site like Dir­ect Fer­ries, but I still recom­mend book­ing dir­ectly with the oper­at­or if pos­sible.

Anoth­er tip with regard to fer­ries is not to be unduly wor­ried by stor­ies or reviews online claim­ing that fer­ries are unpleas­ant, 脏, 等等.  I have sailed on a good num­ber of fer­ries in the Medi­ter­ranean, oper­ated by French, Itali­ans, 和希腊人, and in all cases the boats have been very sim­il­ar the the sort of boats encountered when cross­ing the chan­nel.

获取廉价航班

如果你想包括您的旅行航班, by far the best cheap-flight web­site I have found is Skyscanner上.  Fares in peak sea­son to and from the UK are still pricey, but flights with­in Europe can be found very cheaply.

去哪里看什么

The obvi­ous place to start for places to vis­it is the mighty 旅行顾问.  You can eas­ily get reviews and rat­ings for the major­ity of vis­it­or attrac­tions any­where in Europe.  然而, trip advisor does act like a pop­ular­ity con­test — the things the almost every­one liked will be at the top, but if you want to exper­i­ence the best places that aren’t swamped with tour­ists they’re unlikely to be on trip advisor!  Find­ing “off the beaten track” places online is obvi­ously dif­fi­cult because once someone has writ­ten about them they gradu­ally stop being “off the beaten track”.  At the time of writ­ing the best coun­tries for escap­ing the tour­ists are the former com­mun­ist states and new EU mem­bers Romania and Albania (and to some extent Bul­garia).  By the time you read this they may well be the new darling of the tour­ist world — let’s hope they don’t get spoiled by their own suc­cess.

Regard­less of what coun­try you vis­it, it is always pos­sible to find places that are less vis­ited, but find­ing them requires more research and ideally some spe­cial­ist loc­al know­ledge.  To get star­ted, the European Par­lia­ment has a yearly list of places to see that are little-known, with one in each mem­ber state.  So far they have pub­lished lists in 2013, and2014, but sadly there hasn’t been an edi­tion for 2015.  If you are mainly plan­ning to vis­it major European cit­ies then Spot­ted by Loc­als has some use­ful city guides.  The guides unfor­tu­nately aren’t free, 但仅 $2-$3 per city they are afford­able on all but the tight­est budgets.

The best way to find less vis­ited places to vis­it is by fol­low­ing loc­al know­ledge.  Real­ist­ic­ally this means find­ing spe­cial­ist web­sites for each coun­try, 甚至区域.  Below I have lis­ted sites that I can recom­mend. The list is cur­rently very lim­ited but I will keep it updated with any oth­er sites I find and will also add any good sites that are recom­men­ded in the com­ments.  If you have any recom­mend­a­tions please let us know.

西欧

Bel­gi­um

法国

Ire­land

Neth­er­lands

德国

Switzer­land

斯堪的纳维亚

Den­mark

Fin­land

瑞典

Nor­way

欧洲中部

Aus­tria

Czech Repub­lic

斯洛文尼亚

匈牙利

Slov­akia

南欧

意大利

西班牙

Por­tugal

希腊, 希腊群岛, 塞浦路斯

马耳他

巴尔干

阿尔巴尼亚

Ser­bia

Bos­nia

克罗地亚

马其顿

黑山

东欧洲

波兰

罗马尼亚

  • HTTPS://romaniadacia.wordpress.com/
  • HTTP://www.wonderful-romania.com/

Esto­nia, 拉脱维亚, 立陶宛

Bul­garia

白俄罗斯

乌克兰

住哪里

Choos­ing places to stay is a very per­son­al thing so I wont be recom­mend­ing spe­cif­ic hotels, or even types of accom­mod­a­tion.  Each trip I’ve booked I’ve been look­ing for slightly dif­fer­ent com­bin­a­tions of facil­it­ies and prices myself, and find­ing the most suit­able accom­mod­a­tion is prob­ably the most sig­ni­fic­ant part of the plan­ning of a trip for me.  我用过很多网站多年来, but have settled on a com­bin­a­tion that has worked well for the last few years.

Start by mak­ing a list of “must haves” and “good to haves” and a tar­get price point.  Also think care­fully about the loc­a­tion — if you are using trains to get around most cit­ies have a cent­ral sta­tion so city centre hotels make the most sense.  If you are driv­ing then I recom­mend look­ing at accom­mod­a­tion on the out­skirts of town so you don’t have to drive into city centres which is stress­ful and time con­sum­ing.  I have always man­aged to find good accom­mod­a­tion on the edges of cit­ies and by check­ing metro / under­ground routes and ser­vices, it is usu­ally pos­sible to stay near the motor­way and near rap­id trans­port via which you can vis­it the city

一旦你的价格的想法, facil­it­ies, and loc­a­tion it is time to start find­ing pos­sible prop­er­ties.  我总是先从 booking.com because their search allows the selec­tion of lots of facil­it­ies and options, and they have a lot of accom­mod­a­tion in every city.  If you select “busi­ness” as your travel pur­pose, you can select “free can­cel­la­tion” as an option which is some­thing that I have found really use­ful in the past.  If like me you have sev­er­al cri­ter­ia (中的至少一个分数 7/10, air con­di­tion­ing, free park­ing, 无线上网, free can­cel­la­tion) and an approx­im­ate loc­a­tion in mind you will be able to nar­row down your options to a man­age­able list.  然后我寻找每个选项上 旅行顾问 to see what the gen­er­al review score is like.  不要让穷奇审核把你赶走, espe­cially if the author has a small num­ber of reviews — trip advisor doesn’t veri­fy reviews.  If you input your dates Trip Advisor will also find the price to book on a range of sites includ­ing booking.com so you can check that the price on booking.com is com­pet­it­ive.  It usu­ally is, 但并非总是如此!

一对夫妇的最后的东西来检查之前,你的书是入住和退房时间, and the bed con­fig­ur­a­tion.  If you are trav­el­ling with friends you prob­ably want twin rooms with two single beds, 而不是有一张双人床双人房.  This is the one thing I always for­get and usu­ally only real­ise just as I’m about to book.  This is frus­trat­ing, because if the accom­mod­a­tion only offers double beds and you want singles you have no choice but to go back to your ori­gin­al list and start look­ing again

If you are unable to find suit­able accom­mod­a­tion this way then you can widen your search by going back to trip advisor and search­ing there.  The search options are not as power­ful and you will have to spend longer check­ing each option to see if it meets all the cri­ter­ia you are look­ing for.  If trip advisor also fails to turn up suit­able accom­mod­a­tion I recom­mend try­ing Hostel Book­ers, 世界旅馆 and Expedia的

If all of the above fail you can try your luck with some of the hotel com­par­is­on sites but you will prob­ably have to reduce the num­ber of facil­it­ies you require, 增加预算, or vis­it some­where else!

外国资金

The intro­duc­tion of the Euro has made travel money in Europe quite a bit sim­pler, but there are still a sig­ni­fic­ant num­ber of coun­tries that don’t use the Euro.  It is easy to find both cur­ren­cies and exchange rates via google so I wont cov­er those here, 代替, I think more use­ful advice is the best way to get and change money.

Cred­it and deb­it cards have sev­er­al advant­ages over cash, and for some hotel and almost all car rent­als a card is required.  Almost all busi­nesses in major European cit­ies accept Visa and Mas­ter­card cards, and cards are now accep­ted even in many more rur­al parts of south­ern and east­ern Europe.  Most work with the chip and pin sys­tem, but don’t be sur­prised if you are also asked to sign.

It is a good idea to noti­fy your card issuer that you are trav­el­ling as some may block trans­ac­tions from abroad unless they have been noti­fied that you are trav­el­ling.  I have nev­er had this hap­pen to me, but I know oth­er people who have, 它似乎取决于您的发卡银行.  I travel reg­u­larly, so my card issuers are used to for­eign card use.  It is also highly advis­able to take more than 1 卡.  I once watched as a fuel sta­tion attend­ant idly flexed my fath­ers cred­it card in his hand whilst filling the tank with pet­rol, and without warn­ing the card snapped in half, if we hadn’t had oth­er cards it could have made the hol­i­day very dif­fi­cult.

The best way to spend money abroad in gen­er­al is on a cred­it card, espe­cially if you can get one that gives you the true exchange rate without any fees.  At the time of writ­ing there is a Mas­ter­card offered by the post office which has no fees and uses the Mas­ter­card daily rate which I used suc­cess­fully for sev­er­al years.  There are also a few oth­er cards cur­rently which offer equally good deals.  Money Sav­ing Expert 总有一个向上最新指南, 所以来看看有.

Deb­it cards are gen­er­ally not as good, and cash with­draw­als almost always entail being charged a fee some­where in the chain.  Always with­draw cash in the loc­al cur­rency — not in pounds.  Many cash machines will offer to do the con­ver­sion for you — the rates for doing this are very poor — you will be bet­ter off let­ting your bank do the con­ver­sion.

现金

If you want to take a sig­ni­fic­ant amount of cash with you, you will want to get the best rate pos­sible in the UK.  Money Sav­ing Expert again has the best tool for com­par­ing a large range of online bur­eaux ser­vices.  The range of deals avail­able is com­plex but by using the tool and put­ting in how much you want to exchange it will find the best over­all deal.  Deals tend to be bet­ter the more cash you get, so if sev­er­al of your travel party need cash it might be worth club­bing togeth­er and doing a single order.  Pay with deb­it card, as a cred­it card will treat the trans­ac­tion as a cash with­draw­al which will usu­ally come with fees or charges.

安全

Secur­ity is under­stand­ably one of the biggest con­cerns for many trav­el­lers, with many European cit­ies being notori­ous for pick pock­et­ing, 盗窃和诈骗小.  On the pos­it­ive side, European cit­ies are gen­er­ally much safer than most oth­er parts of the world in terms of viol­ent crime, so once you’ve taken reas­on­able steps to secure your pos­ses­sions you shouldn’t have too many oth­er con­cerns.

As a gen­er­al rule thieves tar­get­ing tour­ists are creatures of oppor­tun­ity — you job is to reduce the oppor­tun­it­ies that you present.  My favour­ite ana­logy is the life tip “you don’t have to run faster than a bear, you just have to run faster than the per­son next to you”.  A typ­ic­al thief will identi­fy the easi­est high value tar­gets — so take steps to avoid being one of them.  The most import­ant thing is being alert and aware all the time — you don’t want to be bumped, brushed or dis­trac­ted, so try to anti­cip­ate these kind of things and steer clear of them.  当然, in major cit­ies, espe­cially on pub­lic trans­port, this is often easi­er said than done, so any oth­er ways your can con­vince thieves that you’re a poor tar­get are worth con­sid­er­ing.

小件物品: 现金, 牌, 手机, 等等

Try to avoid car­ry­ing large sums of cash.  If you use the cards recom­men­ded in the “money” sec­tion it is quite pos­sible to tour around Europe without ever hav­ing more than €100 or so on your per­son.  Keep your valu­ables some­where secure — either in a good sized wal­let in a tight pock­et (e.g. your front jeans pock­et), 或在 钱带, 你的衣服穿在你腰部周围.  A good pick­pock­et may still be able to get at these, but you’re not try­ing to out­run the bear!  If there aren’t many people about it is easy to keep space between you and poten­tial pick­pock­ets, if you’re in a busy space then there will be easi­er pick­ings!

减少你的表观值

If you choose to stroll around covered in gold and dia­monds, don’t be sur­prised if you attract unwanted atten­tion.  Think about your appear­ance and try to avoid look­ing too flashy.  The same goes for using cash — don’t flash a wal­let full of €100 notes to a crowd of people — stick with €5, €10, 并€20个音符像那些你在家里使用.

电子产品

Record the seri­al num­bers of valu­able elec­tron­ic items (手机, cam­er­as, 笔记本电脑, 等等) 并注册 (免费) 同 Immob­il­ise, a data­base used by the police when they recov­er stolen prop­erty.  Immob­il­ise also sell secur­ity stick­ers which are small but eas­ily catch the eye.  A thief may well be able to get the stick­er off, 但它是额外的工作, and if you’ve bothered with a stick­er you might have taken oth­er steps (e.g. record­ing the IMEI num­ber of your phone and get­ting it blocked if stolen) that could make any­thing stolen worth­less.  Like many of the oth­er tips here, it’s no guar­an­tee, but you just made your­self a lower value tar­get

相机

Digit­al cam­er­as, espe­cially digit­al SLR’s, are very com­mon pos­ses­sions for a tour­ists.  They’re also valu­able and eas­ily resellable on the black mar­ket.  当然, 如果你有带固定好 (e.g. diag­on­ally across your chest) they’re harder to steal. Thieves will gen­er­ally only tar­get unse­cured ones so don’t leave it on the table of the road-side cafe whilst you have a drink!  If you have a high value cam­era how­ever, some thieves are will­ing to try oth­er ways to take it, for example slash­ing the strap with a knife and then zoom­ing off on a motor­bike.  You can address both your risk of being tar­geted and the chance that the thief will suc­ceed by repla­cing the strap on your cam­era.  Many cam­er­as print the make and mod­el of the cam­era on the strap — a huge “steal me” flag to thieves who know which mod­els are valu­able.  I can per­son­ally recom­mend the Pac­Safe Carry Safe straps which are avail­able for around £30.  This strap gives no clue as to the make and mod­el of the cam­era, 即使小偷曾尝试斜线和运行, it con­tains steel wire which would pre­vent the strap from being cut.

手袋

It is unusu­al to get bags or pos­ses­sions stolen from private rooms in hotels, because any hotel where this happened could expect it’s repu­ta­tion on sites like Trip Advisor to take a sig­ni­fic­ant hit.  Your bags are much more likely to be tar­geted whilst on your back, or if you sleep on trans­port (e.g. fer­ries or night trains).  A small lock on the zip­per of a bag is enough to dis­cour­age most oppor­tun­ist­ic thieves when you have the bag on you.

The most com­mon attempts to steal from a bag on trains and boats seems to be an attempt to quietly take the whole bag whilst you are sleep­ing.  Secure your bag with a lock to a sol­id object like the leg of a beda radi­at­or, or sim­il­ar.

打包清单

Below is my stand­ard start­ing-point pack­ing list for a European hol­i­day.

  • Pass­port
  • Tick­ets / book­ing ref­er­ences
  • Music Play­er & head­phones
  • Cam­era & accessor­ies
  • 备用存储卡
  • Card Read­er
  • Spare Bat­ter­ies
  • Bat­tery Char­gers
  • Mobile Phone and Char­ger
  • For­eign Sim Cards
  • 房门钥匙
  • 图书 / 杂志 / 点燃
  • Swim­wear / 风镜 / snor­kelling gear
  • San­dals / 人字拖
  • Anti-moz­zie spray
  • 墨镜
  • 灰泥
  • 欧洲健康卡
  • Travel Insur­ance Docs
  • Addresses for post­card send­ing
  • 防晒霜 (检查使用按日期)
  • Driv­ing license
  • Inter­na­tion­al driv­ing per­mit
  • 短袜
  • 钢笔 / 纸
  • Small mag­net & dis­count card (打开酒店房间没有电源键)
  • 沙滩巾(s)
  • 茶包
  • Sports fix­ture list
  • Anti­sep­tic cream
  • Tooth­brush / 糊
  • Anti­per­spir­ant
  • After­shave
  • Shav­ing Foam
  • 剃须刀 / 谢菲联
  • 面部磨砂
  • 沐浴露
  • 光裤
  • 7-days of under­wear
  • Play­ing Cards
  • 止痒霜 (fen­istil)
  • Any med­ic­a­tion required
  • 货币 (for­eign and UK)
  • 晕车带 / 姜丸
  • 第二银行卡 (cred­it card ideally)
  • 沙滩玩具

互联网 & 通讯

A major­ity of accom­mod­a­tion across Europe now offers WiFi, usu­ally for free.  这是伟大的,而你在你的酒店, but I find I mainly use inter­net access for google maps nav­ig­a­tion, and for trip advisor for places to eat when out and about and so anoth­er option is needed

免费WiFi

There are often free WiFi hot­spots in cafe’s etc, 它可以工作的时候外出走动.  If you are a BT broad­band cus­tom­er then you will have access to their large net­work of “FON” hot­spots which can be very use­ful.  Many pub­lic build­ings, 例如博物馆, 往往还提供免费无线网络.  有些人可能能够获得通过只是使用WiFi这样

手机漫游

All mobile phone net­works in the UK now offer some kind of roam­ing deal for Europe.  “Three” is best known for its “feel at home” deals which extend to some European coun­tries, 但绝不是全部.  European legis­la­tion will (hope­fully) even­tu­ally make roam­ing free across the EU(六月 2017 is appar­ently the date for this), but until then the offers con­tin­ue to change on a reg­u­lar basis, so I advise look­ing at Money Sav­ing Expert 用于将上行最新指南.  One option I can sug­gest con­sid­er­ing is 移动的iD from carphone ware­house.  This net­work “piggy-backs” on Three, and with their “TakeAway” pack­ages offers free roam­ing in all EU coun­tries.  A warn­ing though — not all of the plans are “TakeAway” plans, so check care­fully what plans you’re look­ing at.  I used roam­ing data without restrict­ing myself for 2 weeks in sum­mer 2015 并在1GB左右使用 2 week peri­od.

信息预先准备

I usu­ally pro­duce a “travel doc­u­ment” with a page for each day that con­tains the key inform­a­tion.  This havs proven really handy over the years as a quick ref­er­ence in the morn­ing.  下面是一个例子图像

规划行程

As well as the above daily plan­ning doc­u­ment I usu­ally take a range of oth­er inform­a­tion includ­ing a sports fix­ture list, 地铁地图, and detailed inform­a­tion about trans­port links in cit­ies — e.g. 地铁东西线,我需要, what is the ter­minus sta­tion in the dir­ec­tion I’m going (because they’re always labelled in the dir­ec­tion of the ter­minus they are trav­el­ling towards), 什么停止做我要下车, 又有多少站是从哪里获得的.

摄影技巧

The fol­low­ing is a gen­er­ic “start­ing point” list of cam­era set­tings for a range of scenes you might want to pho­to­graph on hol­i­day.  It is aimed at people using DSLR or sim­il­arly cus­tom­is­able cam­er­as

山, 大户外

  • 广角镜头 - 围绕15毫米理想
  • Tri­pod
  • Use the built-in “spir­it level” sys­tem
  • ND grad fil­ter – to address the sky being much bright­er than the ground
  • Small aper­ture – ideally around f/16 – f/22
  • Eval­u­at­ive meter­ing – accounts for the whole scene
  • Check his­to­gram – if it doesn’t reach the right hand end the fil­ter is too dark

  • 对眼睛的自动对焦点
  • Use a 50–100mm lens a bit of dis­tance away to avoid dis­tor­tion
  • Use A/V mode and use a large aper­ture, e.g. f / 1.8镜头
  • Burst mode – take mul­tiple shots
  • For mul­tiple people use smal­ler aper­tures – around f/8
  • 尽量避免夜间闪光, 但不要在白天使用!
  • Shoot into the sun with the sub­ject block­ing it
  • Facial shad­ows are tricky at mid­day

房屋

  • Use small aper­ture – f/13 – f/16
  • ISO 100–200
  • Use a polar­iser
  • Use dis­tance and a medi­um focal length to avoid dis­tor­tion
  • 放大细节
  • Sun behind you usu­ally best

  • Make sure hori­zon is hori­zont­al – could use tri­pod and built in “spir­it level”
  • Use wide angle – 10–24mm
  • Use an inter­est­ing fore­ground
  • Use ND8 fil­ter with long expos­ures – around 0.5sec for waves
  • Use 30sec expos­ure to blur the sea
  • For wave crash­ing use burst mode
  • Long night expos­ures also work
  • For bright sand con­sider using +1 expos­ure com­pens­a­tion to stop it look­ing grey rather than white
  • Sun behind you usu­ally best

从动车

  • Use Shut­ter pri­or­ity – TV mode
  • Use a fast shut­ter – 1/1000 min­im­um
  • Use a wide aper­ture – f/2.8 — f/5.6 to blur win­dow stains and get plenty of light in des­pite the fast shut­ter
  • Get the cam­era as close to the win­dow as pos­sible
  • 使用 ISO 如果需要获得更多的光, 取决于 2000
  • Servo focus mode as dis­tances will change
  • 采用突发模式
  • 可以把 ISO on auto and use the “lim­it” set­ting to pre­vent it going too high

夜星

  • Tri­pod essen­tial
  • Expos­ure 15 - 30 秒. 再会显示“星迹”
  • Largest pos­sible aper­ture – e.g. f / 2.8镜头
  • ISO max­im­um without noise – around 2000 或者
  • Widest pos­sible angle lens – fisheye great
  • Use mir­ror lock-up to reduce cam­era shake
  • Use RAW so post-pro­cessing can improve the col­ours

月亮

  • Max­im­um zoom – 400mm ideally
  • Tri­pod
  • Mir­ror lockup
  • ISO – 100–200
  • Medi­um aper­ture for max­im­um cla­ri­fy – around f/8
  • Plenty of light so fast expos­ure should work – around 1/125sec
  • Auto white bal­ance often works best, 如果它过于橙色, use tung­sten or cloudy

人们在晚上

  • 粘到1/60秒或更快
  • Use lenses which can get to f/2.8 or bet­ter
  • 使用 ISO 1600–3200

城市天际线在晚上

  • Use aper­ture pri­or­ity with medi­um aper­ture around f/8
  • 保持 ISO low 100–200
  • Use long expos­ure – up to 30sec
  • Use brack­eted mul­tiple expos­ures – basic­ally the auto HDR mode
  • Post pro­cess using lumin­os­ity masks
  • Take mul­tiple expos­ures for car trails
  • Post-pro­cess for bar­rel dis­tor­tion in wide angle

一般夜景而又运动模糊

  • 使用 -1 expos­ure com­pens­a­tion to keep back­ground dark
  • 使用相当高 ISO - 1600

移动光源

  • G. fire­works, fair­ground rides, 交通, light­ning
  • F / 11左右
  • Long expos­ure 15–30secs

日落

  • ISO - 100
  • Use day­light white bal­ance
  • Con­sider an ND fil­ter
  • Use a small aper­ture – f/13 or so
  • Use a fast expos­ure
  • 规则 2 三分之二

餐饮 (晚间)

  • Angled back­light­ing needed
  • Use the white bal­ance set­tings in the even­ing
  • 无闪光灯
  • 1/60sec expos­ure or faster
  • Highish aper­ture – around f/2.8 – f/5.6
  • 继续下 ISO 1600

旅游阅读

我有一个 sep­ar­ate post with sug­ges­tions and brief reviews of a range of travel books.

 

地图

数字地图

见我 sep­ar­ate post with lots of google maps of Europe and European cit­ies.

纸质地图

Whilst digit­al maps, 像上述那些, 是伟大的, it is often handy to have a paper map avail­able.  Sev­er­al pub­lish­ers pro­duce “pop-up” map books which eas­ily fit into a pock­et and con­tain detailed maps of city centres along with oth­er use­ful inform­a­tion.

你怎么看? 请给我们一个评论如下! 如果您想订阅,请使用菜单上的订阅链接右上方. 您还可以通过使用下面的链接社会分享这与你的朋友. 干杯.

你可能还喜欢...

发表评论